Emergency Medical Minute δημόσια
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Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: The case: A gentleman came in from a nursing home with symptoms concerning for sepsis. He was hypotensive, hypoxic, febrile, and mentally altered. His past medical history included previous strokes which had left him with deficits for which he required a feeding tube. Initial workup included some poi…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days A 2024 meta-…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaterna…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Bupreno…
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Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct dose of lorazepam For lev…
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Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence that a lower dose of 0…
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Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or PT >15 Warfarin will reliably increase the INR Current use of Direct thrombin inhibitor or Factor Xa inhibitor aPTT/PT/INR are insufficient to assess the degree of anticoagulant effect of F…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical st…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison's Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyp…
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Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which…
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Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mor…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. Thi…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, nor…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents s…
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Contributors: Kali Olson PharmD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode of Pharmacy Phriday, Dr. Kali Olson joins Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson in studio to discuss a variety of interesting topics in the form of a segment show. Dr. Kali Olson earned her Doctorate of Pharmacy from the University of Colorado, Skaggs Scho…
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Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature less than 35 degrees Celsius or less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit Mild Hypothermia: 32-35 degrees Celsius Presentation: alert, shivering, tachycardic, and cold diuresis Management: Passive rewarming i.e. remove wet clothing and cover the patient with bla…
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Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood pressure readings Design 195 adults with varying mid-upper arm circumferences were randomized to the order of BP cuff application: Appropriate Too small Too large …
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Is the adage, “GCS of 8, you’ve got to intubate” accurate? A recent study published in the November 2023 issue of JAMA attempted to answer this question. Design Multicenter, randomized trial, in France from 2021 to 2023. 225 patients experiencing comatose in the setting of acute poisoning were random…
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Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A 2013 study randomized families of those in cardiac arrest into two groups: Actively offered patients’ families the opportunity to observe CPR Follow standard practice regarding family presence (control group) Of the 266 relatives that received offers to observe CPR, 211 (79%) accepted vs. 43% in th…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Croup Caused by: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, RSV, Enterovirus (big right now) Age range: 6 months to 3 years Symptoms: Barky cough Inspiratory stridor (Severe = stidor at rest) Use the Westley Croup Score to gauge the severity Treatment: High flow, humidified, cool oxygen Dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg or…
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Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Three zones of the neck with different structures and risks for injuries: Zone 1 is the most caudal region from the clavicle to the cricoid cartilage Zone 2 is from the cricoid cartilage to the angle of the mandible Zone 3 is superior to the angle of the mandible Zone 1 contains the thoracic outlet…
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Contributor: Kiersten Williams MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss a clip from Dr. Williams’ talk at the “Laboring Under Pressure, Managing Obstetric Emergencies in a Global Setting” event from May 2023. This event was hosted at the University of Denve…
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